Artificial intelligence (AI) has been a hot topic of discussion for the better part of the last decade. Many tasks and daily lives have been simplified thanks to technological advancements like robot helpers and automated production lines.
The ability to use data to generate and train AI algorithms is a significant strength of AI. This paves the way for developing an AI-based system, which can then be used to sift through large volumes of data and extract meaningful information. But that’s only half the battle won; for data to be useful, it must be labelled so that a computer can understand it.
To train a Machine Learning algorithm, it is necessary to “label” the data by assigning values to each data point. Machine Learning can’t be used to automate data processing, however, since it needs rules to follow.
Businesses use AI systems to streamline operations and seize emerging market opportunities. However, data annotation is one of the most challenging obstacles to AI adoption in the workplace.
In this article, we will learn all about data labelling, from its significance in Machine Learning to the many forms it takes and why it’s so crucial to the field of artificial intelligence. But before we go in, it’s important to define labels and learn how they vary from features in Machine Learning.
Labels and Features in Machine Learning
Labels in Machine Learning
Tags and labels both serve the purpose of uniquely identifying and providing context for a data element. Labels in an audio file could be the actual words spoken. When supervised techniques are used to train a model, the model is fed a labelled dataset to learn from. The ML model can generate reliable inferences on an unannotated test dataset with the help of this training dataset annotated with relevant information.
Features in Machine Learning
Features are the inputs into the ML system, and they are the individual, uncontrolled variables. A column in a dataset used for machine learning may be considered a feature. These characteristics are the building blocks from which ML models get their predictions. Furthermore, the new features may be derived from the existing ones using feature engineering techniques.
Using a simple dataset of animal pictures, we can differentiate between labels and features. Features consist of characteristics such as skin tone, hair colour and height. Cat or dog, these are the labels.
With that out of the way, let’s get into the meat of the topic: data labelling.
Data Labeling: What is It?
Data labelling is a step in the machine learning process that involves taking unstructured data (such as text files, photos, videos, etc.) and assigning it a meaningful label or label to offer context. Labels can tell you whether an x-ray shows a tumour or if a picture shows a bird or a vehicle. They can tell you what was said in an audio recording or read from a transcript. Several applications need data labelling, such as computer vision, natural language processing, and voice recognition.
The Mechanisms of Data Labeling
Most current-day usable machine learning models use supervised learning, in which an algorithm is used to map an input to a single output directly. In supervised learning, the model is given access to a labelled data set from which it may infer how to make accurate decisions.
The following is a rundown of the steps involved in data labelling:
- Data collection: To train the model, raw data is gathered. This data is refined and organised into a database before being fed into the model.
- Data tagging: Data labelling methods identify data and provide it with the relevant context that the computer can utilise as ground truth. Data tagging for supervised learning requires “Human-in-the-loop” (HITL) involvement, where humans evaluate unlabeled data. Machine learning models are then “trained” by feeding them examples of correct labelling by humans. In the end, you have a model trained to make predictions based on new data.
- Quality assurance: The accuracy of tags assigned to a data point and the location of coordinates used to annotate bounding boxes and key points are two factors that affect the quality of data annotations. The average accuracy of these annotations can be calculated using the Consensus method and Cronbach’s alpha test.
Types of Data Labeling
The common types of data labelling for machine learning are:
Natural Language Processing
When building a training dataset for NLP, it is necessary to classify or identify important texts manually. You may need to analyse a snippet of text for its tone or intent, classify proper nouns like places and people, or spot words and phrases in images and documents. Make text boxes and manually transcribe your data collection for training. Some of the most common applications of NLP models in AI include optical character recognition, entity name recognition, and sentiment analysis.
The first stage in developing a computer vision system is to generate a training dataset. This is done by labelling images, pixels, or important areas or generating a bounding box to contain a digital image entirely. Photos may be segmented at the pixel level, by quality, or by content. This data may be used to train a computer vision model that can automatically perform tasks like feature detection, object detection, image segmentation and picture categorisation.
Audio processing organises sounds such as speech, animal sounds (barks, whistles, or chirps), and ambient sounds (broken glass, scans, or sirens) such that they may be used in machine learning. Usually, audio processing comes after transcription has been completed. Further details about the recording might be uncovered through tagging and organising the audio. This database of labelled sound clips can then serve as a training dataset for ML.